Information

What is the name of this type of inflorescence?


I was having a look at a rhizophora plant (from the mangrove family), and I got curious about its inflorescence. I can't make out what kind of inflorescence it is.

Here is a photo of the inflorescence.

Does anyone know which kind of inflorescence it is?


That is a woody compound umbel. A compound umbel is one with more than one set of pedicels between the peduncle and the flower. Hydrangeas also exhibit this type of inflorescence, although not necessarily woody.

In the picture below, I've marked all the levels where the pedicels branch.

  1. End of peduncle, beginning of primary pedicels
  2. Beginning of secondary pedicels
  3. Beginning of tertiary pedicels
  4. Beginning of quaternary pedicels, which bear flowers


Catkin

A catkin or ament is a slim, cylindrical flower cluster (a spike), with inconspicuous or no petals, usually wind-pollinated (anemophilous) but sometimes insect-pollinated (as in Salix). They contain many, usually unisexual flowers, arranged closely along a central stem that is often drooping. They are found in many plant families, including Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Moraceae, and Salicaceae.


Determinate inflorescence.

In determinate (cymose) inflorescences, the youngest flowers are at the bottom of an elongated axis or on the outside of a truncated axis. At the time of flowering, the apical meristem (the terminal point of cell division) produces a flower bud, thus arresting the growth of the peduncle.

A cyme is a flat-topped inflorescence in which the central flowers open first, followed by the peripheral flowers, as in the onion (genus Allium).

A dichasium is one unit of a cyme and is characterized by a stunted central flower and two lateral flowers on elongated pedicels, as in the wood stichwort (species Stellaria nemorum).


Contents

Achillea millefolium is an erect, herbaceous, perennial plant that produces one to several stems 0.2–1 m (8–40 in) in height, and has a spreading rhizomatous growth form. Leaves are evenly distributed along the stem, with the leaves near the middle and bottom of the stem being the largest. The leaves have varying degrees of hairiness (pubescence). The leaves are 5–20 cm (2–8 in) long, bipinnate or tripinnate, almost feathery, and arranged spirally on the stems. The leaves are cauline, and more or less clasping. [5]

The inflorescence has 4 to 9 phyllaries and contains ray and disk flowers which are white to pink. The generally 3 to 8 ray flowers are ovate to round. Disk flowers range from 15 to 40. The inflorescence is produced in a flat-topped capitulum cluster and the inflorescences are visited by many insects, featuring a generalized pollination system. [6] The small achene-like fruits are called cypsela. [5]

The plant has a strong, sweet scent, similar to that of chrysanthemums. [2]

The several varieties and subspecies include:

  • Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium
    • A. m. subsp. m. var. millefolium – Europe, Asia
    • A. m. subsp. m. var. borealis – Arctic regions
    • A. m. subsp. m. var. rubra – Southern Appalachians

    Yarrow grows from sea level to 3,500 m (11,500 ft) in elevation. The plant commonly flowers from May to July. Common yarrow is frequently found in the mildly disturbed soil of grasslands and open forests. Active growth occurs in the spring. [2] [5]

    The plant is native to Eurasia and is found widely from the UK to China.

    In North America, both native and introduced genotypes, and both diploid and polyploid plants are found. [14] It is found in every habitat throughout California except the Colorado and Mojave Deserts. [15] [16] Common yarrow produces an average yield of 110,000 plants per hectare (43,000/acre), with a total dry weight of 11,800 kg/ha (10,500 lb/acre). [17]

    The plant is found in Australia as an introduction.

    Birds Edit

    Several cavity-nesting birds, including the common starling, use yarrow to line their nests. Experiments conducted on the tree swallow, which does not use yarrow, suggest that adding yarrow to nests inhibits the growth of parasites. [18]

    Insects Edit

    Achillea millefolium is a food source for many species of insects.

    Cassida denticollis, Galeruca tanaceti, Hypocassida subferruginea and Phytoecia virgula are cosmopolitan species of beetles that feed on A. millefolium.
    Chrysanthia viridissima is a European species whose adults can be found feeding on pollen and nectar.
    Trichodes ornatus (ornate checkered beetle) is a species found in North America whose adults can be found feeding on A. millefolium.

    Horistus orientalis is a species of plant bugs that feed on A. millefolium.

    Hedychrum rutilans is a species of cuckoo wasps whose adults can be found feeding on A. millefolium in Europe and North Africa.

    Achillea millefolium is cultivated as an ornamental plant by many plant nurseries. It is planted in gardens and natural landscaping settings of diverse climates and styles. They include native plant, drought-tolerant, and wildlife gardens. The plant is a frequent component of butterfly gardens. The plant prefers well-drained soil in full sun, but can be grown in less ideal conditions. [19] [20] [21]

    Propagation Edit

    For propagation, seeds require light for germination, so optimal germination occurs when planted no deeper than 6 mm ( 1 ⁄ 4 in). Seeds also require a germination temperature of 18–24 °C (64–75 °F). It has a relatively short life in some situations, but may be prolonged by division in the spring every other year, and planting 30 to 46 cm (12–18 in) apart. It can become invasive. [22]

    Cultivars Edit

    The species use in traditional gardens has generally been superseded by cultivars with specific 'improved' qualities. [23] Some are used as drought tolerant lawn replacements, with periodic mowing. [24] The many different ornamental cultivars include: 'Paprika', [25] 'Cerise Queen', 'Red Beauty', [26] 'Red Velvet', [27] 'Saucy Seduction', 'Strawberry Seduction' (red), 'Island Pink' (pink), [28] and 'Calistoga' (white), [29] and 'Sonoma Coast' (white). [30] The following are recipients of the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

    The many hybrids of this species designated Achillea × taygetea are useful garden subjects, [35] including: 'Appleblossom', 'Fanal', 'Hoffnung', and 'Moonshine'. [36]

    The English name yarrow comes from its Saxon (Old English) name gearwe, which is related to both the Dutch word gerw (alternately yerw [37] ) and the Old High German word garawa. [38] In the eastern counties it may be called yarroway. [37]

    The genus name Achillea is derived from mythical Greek character, Achilles, who reportedly carried it with his army to treat battle wounds. [39] The specific name millefolium as well as the common names milfoil and thousand weed come from the featherlike leaves which appear to be divided into a thousand. [39]

    For its historical use in wound healing particularly in the military it was called bloodwort, herba militaris, knight's milfoil, staunchweed, and, from its use in the US Civil War, soldier's woundwort. [39] Its use in either starting or stopping nosebleeds led to the common name nosebleed. [37] [40] For its association with the Abrahamic Devil it was called bad man's plaything, devil's nettle, and devil's plaything. [37] It was called old man's pepper due to its pungent flavor, while the name field hop came from its use in beer making in Sweden. [37]

    Other traditional names for A. millefolium include arrowroot, carpenter's weed, [37] death flower, eerie, hundred leaved grass, knyghten, old man's mustard, sanguinary, [37] seven-year's love, snake's grass, soldier, and thousand seal.

    Greece Edit

    In classical Greece, Homer tells of the centaur Chiron, who conveyed herbal secrets to his human pupils, and taught Achilles to use yarrow on the battle grounds of Troy. [41]

    China Edit

    Yarrow and tortoiseshell are considered to be lucky in Chinese tradition. [42]

    The stalks are dried and used as a randomising agent in I Ching divination. [43]

    British Isles Edit

    In the Hebrides a leaf held against the eyes was sometimes believed to give second sight. [44]

    In Sussex and Devonshire superstition, yarrow was used for finding one's real sweetheart. One would pluck yarrow growing on a young man's grave while reciting:

    Yarrow, sweet yarrow, the first that I have found,
    in the name of Jesus Christ, I pluck it from the ground
    As Joseph loved sweet Mary, and took her for his dear,
    so in a dream this night, I hope, my true love will appear.

    and go to sleep with the yarrow under the pillow. [40]

    In a similar tradition in Wicklow, girls would pick yarrow on Hallow Eve and recite:

    Thou pretty herb of Venus' tree,
    Thy true name is yarrow
    Now who my bosom friend may be,
    Pray tell thou me to-morrow.

    then retire for the night without speaking and go to sleep with an ounce of yarrow sewn in flannel under the pillow. [40]

    In Suffolk a leaf was placed in the nose so it would bleed, while reciting

    Green 'arrow, green 'arrow, you bears a white blow,
    If my love love me, my nose will bleed now
    If my love don't love me, it 'on't bleed a drop,
    If my love do love me, 'twill bleed every drop.
    [40]

    In Dublin on May Day or the night before, women would place a stocking full of yarrow under their pillow and recite:

    Good morrow, good yarrow, good morrow to thee,
    I hope by the yarrow my lover to see
    And that he may be married to me.
    The colour of his hair and the clothes he does wear,
    And if he be for me may his face be turned to me,
    And if he be not, dark and surely may he be,
    And his back be turned toward me.
    [40]

    In the witchcraft trial of Elspeth Reoch in March 1616, she was alleged to have plucked "melefour," thought to be another name for yarrow, and said "In nomine Patris, Fiili, et Spiritus Sancti" to become able to cure distemper (disorders of the four humours) and impart the faculty of prediction. [40]

    Yarrow was thought to bring luck due to being "the first herb our Saviour put in His had when a child." [40]

    Yarrow can be used for dying wool as it contains apigenin and luteolin. Depending on the mordant the color may be green to yellow. [45]

    Companion planting Edit

    Yarrow is considered an especially useful companion plant, attracting beneficial insects and repelling some pests. It attracts predatory wasps, which drink the nectar and then use insect pests as food for their larvae. Similarly, it attracts ladybirds and hoverflies. [21]

    Agriculture Edit

    A. millefolium can be planted to combat soil erosion due to the plant's resistance to drought. Before the arrival of monocultures of ryegrass, both grass and pasture contained A. millefolium at a density of about 0.3 kg/ha. [ citation needed ] One factor for its use in grass mixtures was its deep roots, with leaves rich in minerals, minimizing mineral deficiencies in ruminant feed. It was introduced into New Zealand as a drought-tolerant pasture. [3]

    Food Edit

    Yarrow leaves have a delicate grassy flavour, with a slight aniseed taste. This makes them useful for brewing as a tea. [46] They are abundant in grassland and so can easily be foraged the leaves are useful in salad, chopped in cooking as a herb, and steeped in hot water for a tea.

    In the Middle Ages, yarrow was part of a herbal mixture known as gruit used in the flavoring of beer prior to the use of hops. [47] The flowers and leaves are used in making some liquors and bitters. [2]

    When consumed by cows, an unfavorable flavor is given to their milk. [48]

    Traditional medicine Edit

    A. millefolium was used as in traditional medicine, possibly due to its astringent effects. [2] Yarrow and its North American varieties were traditionally used by many Native American nations. [49] The Navajo historically considered it a "life medicine" and chewed the plant for toothaches and used its infusions for earaches. The Miwok in California used the plant as an analgesic and head cold remedy. [49] Native American nations used the plant for healing cuts and abrasions, for relief of ear-aches, and throat infections, and for an eye-wash. [50] Common yarrow was used by Plains indigenous peoples to reduce pain or fever and aid sleep. [49]

    In the early 20th century, some Ojibwe people used a decoction of yarrow leaves on hot stones and inhaled it to treat headaches, [51] or applied decoctions of the root onto skin for its stimulating effect. [52]

    In rare cases, yarrow can cause severe allergic skin rashes prolonged use can increase the skin's photosensitivity. [53] This can be triggered initially when wet skin comes into contact with cut grass and yarrow together.

    According to the ASPCA, yarrow is toxic to dogs, cats, and horses, causing increased urination, vomiting, diarrhea and dermatitis. [54]

    In a standard rodent model for reproductive toxicity, aqueous extracts of yarrow produced a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm. [55]

    The dark blue essential oil of yarrow contains chemicals called proazulenes. [56]

    Chamazulene and δ-Cadinol are chemical compounds found in A. millefolium. The chromophore of azulene was discovered in yarrow and wormwood and named in 1863 by Septimus Piesse.

    Illustration in Koehlers Medizinal-Pflanzen in naturgetreuen Abbildungen und kurz erläuterndem Texte (Franz Eugen Köhler 1883–1914).


    Ohio Plants

    The manner in which flowers are arranged on plants varies tremendously, and is often a key feature used to identify plants. Moreover, some inflorescences are associated with particular plant families, for example: umbels in the carrot family (sometimes thus called the “Umbelliferae”) spikelets in the grass and sedge families, and a spathe/spadix combination in the arum family. First, some basic terminology.

    A PEDICEL is the stalk of an individual flower. A PEDUNCLE is the stalk of an entire inflorescence. Often, there will be a small leaf-like BRACT subtending a pedicel.

    Moth mullieninflorescence.

    I. SOLITARY INFLORESCENCES
    (terminal and axillary)

    Some inflorescences are one-flowered, in which case the pedicel may (oddly, it seems) also be regarded to be a peduncle. Solitary inflorescences can be terminal, as in the genus Trillium. Here’s large-flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum) proudly displaying its TERMINAL SOLITARY inflorescence. Note also in this species that the flower is stalked, i.e., having a pedicel (which in thus case is also a peduncle).

    Large-flowered trillium solitary, stalked terminal inflorescence.

    A contrast that illustrates well another condition with respect to flower stalks is provided by another trillium, the aptly named “sessile trillium,” Trillium sessile. “Sessile” is term that, in botany, means “stalkless,” i.e., lacking an evident pedicel in the case of flowers (or lacking a petiole if it’s a leaf that’s being described).

    Sessile trillium flowers are non-stalked (sessile), solitary, and terminal.

    Flowers may be placed singly in the axils of normal foliage leaves, as in this Gattlinger’s false-foxglove (Agalinus gattlingeri, family Orobanchaceae).

    False foxglove flowers are SOLITARY in the leaf AXILS.

    II. SCAPOSE INFLORESCENCES
    (leafless and bractless flowering stems)

    A SCAPE is a bare flowering stem arising from a cluster of leaves at the base of the plant. Scapes may either one-flowered, or few-several flowered. The so-called “stemless” violets exemplify the solitary scapose inflorescence type.

    Pale white violet is a “stemless,” having a SCAPOSE inflorescence.

    III. ELONGATE DETERMINATE (RACEMOSE) INFLORESCENCES
    (raceme, panicle, spike, catkin/ament, spikelet, spathe & spadix)

    Plants grow by adding cells at their tips. These regions of cell division are called “apical mersitems.” Thus, a typical plant stem that is producing flowers as it elongates will have: (a) no precisely set, predetermined number of flowers, i.e., it is of “indeterminate” length and flower number and (b) the lower portions are actually older than the upper portions. (That’s so very un-animal-like! Are your feet older than your head?) The most typical plant inflorescences are thus indeterminate, and sometimes called “racemose,” after the most representative type, the RACEME.

    Members of the mustard family often have their flowers in bractless racemes. This is smooth rock-cress (Arabis laevigata) note there are developing fruits at the bottom, flowers in the middle portion, and unopened flower buds at the tip of this very evidentally indeterminate inflorescence type.

    The smooth rock cress inflorescence is a bractless RACEME.

    Wild hyacinth, Camassia scilloides (Liliaceae/Hyacinthaceae) is racemose, and the individual flowers are subtended with bracts.

    Wild hyacinth flowers are borne in RACEMES, with bracts beneath each flower.

    Imagine a raceme that’s having so much fun making flowers that just being one simple elongate axis isn’t good enough it wants to branch out, and so it does. A PANICLE is a repeatedly branched elongate inflorescence. (Fun memory clue: imagine the flowers are in a panic, and running off in all directions.)

    The photo is a bit too much of a far-down (is that the opposite of a close-up?), but lo (and behold) the amazing panicle (several shown here actually) of water plantain, Alisma triviale (Alismataceae).

    Water-plantain produces a multitude of small flowers in a PANICLE inflorescence type.

    Here’s another paniculate species: figwort, Scrophularia marilandica (Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family).

    Figwort flowers are produced in an elongate PANICLE inflorescence type.

    Imagine a raceme, but with flowers that are sessile (stalkless). Or better yet, look at a picture of a SPIKE.

    Moth mullein flowers are in a SPIKE inflorescence type.

    The orchid genus Spiranthes is called “ladies’-tresses” because some imaginative botanist way back when saw a resemblance to braided hair. This is spring ladies’s-tresses, Spiranthes vernalis.

    Ladies’-tresses is an orchid with a SPIKE inflorescence type.

    Cat-tails produce unisexual flowers in contiguous portions of an especially elongate spike: male (staminate) above female (pistillate) below.

    Cat-tails produce tiny wind-pollinated flowers in an elongate SPIKE inflorescence type.
    The spike is pistillate below, and staminate above.

    There are some interesting variations on the spikelet theme. A CATKIN (also called an AMENT) is a small, drooping spike with (typically) tiny unisexual wind-pollinated flowers. Many trees produce only their make flowers in catkins, such as this bittternut hickory, Carya cordiformis (Juglandaceae, the walnut family).

    Bitternut hickory’s male flowers are in CATKINS.

    The flowers of grasses and sedges are highly modified, and aggregated into tiny clusters appropriately called SPIKELETS. Here’s a few grass spiketes, with some extra parts labelled. Skip over all the details for now except for “spikelet” and “floret” (which can be thought of as a flower.

    Grass flowers are in arranged in a tiny spikes each called a SPIKELET.

    Sedge flowers too are in SPIKELETS.This is shining sedge, Carex lurida.

    Sedge flowers are in arranged in a tiny spikes each called a SPIKELET.

    Oooh, oooh, SPATHE and SPADIX! Who doesn’t love Jack-in-the-pulpit? Members of the Arum family (Araceae) have a specialized upright spike (in this case the preacher “Jack”) called a SPADIX that is surrounded and partly enveloped by a huge leaf-like bract, the SPATHE (the pulpit).

    Each Arisaema spadix is either pistillate (hello, Jill in the pulpit?) or male. Below, see a pistillate spadix before and after some sociopathic botanist had at it with a pocket knife. Note the plump ovaries topped by a stigmatic surface.

    The Arisaema inflorescence is a SPADIX surrounded by a leaf-like SPATHE.
    This individual is pistillate (female).

    This is a male inflorescence.Note the abundant stamens, which have mostly released their pollen.

    The Arisaema inflorescence is a SPADIX surrounded by a leaf-like SPATHE.
    This individual is staminate (male).

    IV. DETERMINATE (CYMOSE) INLORESCENCES
    (cyme, helicoid/scorpioid cyme)

    Some inflorescences, instead of having their youngest parts at the growing tip and thereby being indeterminate with respect to the number of flowers they can produce, instead have the oldest portion terminal. This “determinate” growth form is called a CYME, and in its simplest manifestation, consists of three flowers, like the running strawberry-bush, Euonymus obovatus, family Celastraceae) shown below.

    The running strawberry-bush inflorescence is a simple 3-flowered CYME

    Most cymose inflorescence are repeatedly branched, and might be mistaken for a panicle or some other inflorescnce type. They can be difficult to interpret. An interesting and distinctive modified cyme is an elongate one termed that is coiled, and thus called a HELICOID CYME or a SCORPIOID CYME. This is the characteristic inflorescence of the forget-me-not family, Boraginaceae (including the water-leafs, formerly Hydrophylklaceae). Comfrey (Symphytum sp.) is an example.

    The comfrey inflorescnce is a HELICOID CYME.

    V. FLOWERS ALL ATTACHED AT THE SAME POINT
    (umbel and head/capitulum)

    An inflorescence in which several-many pedicellate (stalked) flowers are attached at the same point on a peducnle is called an UMBEL. The umbel is a fairly common inflorescence type.Simple umbels are produced by many clovers (genus Trifolium in Fabaceae, the legume family).

    White clover flowers are stalked, and all attached at the same location on the peduncle,
    thus the inflorescence is an UMBEL.

    Here’s another example of an umbel, this time produced by the most magnificent organism in the entire known universe (eat your heart out, blue whale! hang your cones in shame, coast redwood), Sullivant’s milkweed, Asclepias sullivantii (Apocynaceae, the dogbane family).

    Sullivant’s milkweed flowers are arranged in a simple UMBEL.

    The most well-developed umbels are the compound ones produced by many members of carrot family, Apiaceae. Indeed, this family has an alternate name, the Umbelliferae, which literally means “umbel-bearing.” Wild carrot, also called “Queen Anne’s lace,” produces compound umbels with both the primary and secondary “rays” (peduncles) of the umbel subtended by a series of leaf-like bracts (termed an “involucre).

    Wild Queen Anne’s lacy carrot produces a compound UMBEL.

    Imagine an umbel, but with flowers that are sessile (stalkless). Or better yet, look at a picture of a CAPITULUM. This is common teasel, Dipsacus fullonum (Dipsacaceae, the teasel family).

    Teasel flowers are in a compact CAPITULUM.

    Undoubtedly the most noteworthy plants to present their flowers in a capitulum are those in the aster family, Asteraceae. Also called the “Compositae” because their capitulum often includes two types of flowers in a special mixed cluster, these capitula often resemble large individual blossoms. The flowers are individually tiny aggregation in a capitulum facilitates assembly-line pollination, whereby one floral visitor can deliver pollen to, and remove it from, many flowers in one foraging bout.

    Honeybee visits sunflower CAPITULUM, which consists of a great many small flowers.


    Contents

    The species S. nicolai is the largest in the genus, reaching 10 m tall, with stately white and blue flowers [4] the other species typically reach 2 to 3.5 m tall, except S. caudata which is a tree of a typically smaller size than S. nicolai. The leaves are large, 30–200 cm long and 10–80 cm broad, similar to a banana leaf in appearance but with a longer petiole, and arranged strictly in two ranks to form a fan-like crown of evergreen foliage. The flowers are produced in a horizontal inflorescence emerging from a stout spathe.

    They are pollinated by sunbirds, which use the spathe as a perch when visiting the flowers. The weight of the bird when standing on the spathe opens it to release the pollen onto the bird's feet, which is then deposited on the next flower it visits. Strelitzia lack natural insect pollinators in areas without sunbirds, plants in this genus generally need hand pollination in order to successfully set seed. [5]

    Five species are recognised, although one—Strelitzia juncea—has been shown to be genetically nested within another, Strelitzia reginae. It is possibly a mutation that is in the process of speciating. [6]

    Plants in the genus Strelitzia produce no windborne pollen, and have an OPALS allergy scale rating of 1 (considered "allergy-fighting"). [5]

    The genus was named by Joseph Banks in honour of Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen consort of George III. [8] [9]


    Contents

    Flower buds are formed late in the growing season and overwinter for blooming in spring of the next year. They produce leaf-opposed cymes. Vitis is distinguished from other genera of Vitaceae by having petals which remain joined at the tip and detach from the base to fall together as a calyptra or 'cap'. The flowers are mostly bisexual, [7] : 143 pentamerous, with a hypogynous disk. The calyx is greatly reduced or nonexistent in most species and the petals are joined together at the tip into one unit but separated at the base. The fruit is a berry, ovoid in shape and juicy, with a two-celled ovary each containing two ovules, thus normally producing four seeds per flower (or fewer by way of aborted embryos). [8]

    Other parts of the vine include the tendrils which are leaf-opposed, branched in Vitis vinifera, and are used to support the climbing plant by twining onto surrounding structures such as branches or the trellising of a vine-training system.

    In the wild, all species of Vitis are normally dioecious, but under domestication, variants with perfect flowers appear to have been selected.

    The genus Vitis is divided into two subgenera Euvitis Planch. have 38 chromosomes (n=19) with berries borne on clusters [9] and Muscadinia Planch. 40 (n=20) with small custers. [10] [11]

    Most Vitis species are found mostly in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in North America and eastern Asia, exceptions being a few in the tropics and the wine grape Vitis vinifera which originated in southern Europe and southwestern Asia. Grape species occur in widely different geographical areas and show a great diversity of form.

    Their growth makes leaf collection challenging and polymorphic leaves make identification of species difficult. Mature grapevines can grow up to 48 cm (19 in) in diameter at breast height and reach the upper canopy of trees more than 35 m (115 ft) in height. [12]

    Many species are sufficiently closely related to allow easy interbreeding and the resultant interspecific hybrids are invariably fertile and vigorous. Thus the concept of a species is less well defined and more likely represents the identification of different ecotypes of Vitis that have evolved in distinct geographical and environmental circumstances.

    The exact number of species is not certain, with species in Asia in particular being poorly defined. [13] Approximately 25 species are known in North American and about 55 in eastern Asia. Just one, Vitis vinifera has Eurasian origins. [14] | Some of the more notable include:

    • Vitis arizonica, The Arizona grape is native to Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California, New Mexico, Texas, and Northern Mexico. [15]
    • Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine. Native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia.
    • Vitis labrusca, the fox grapevine, sometimes used for winemaking and for jam. Native to the Eastern United States and Canada. The Concord grape is a common cultivar.
    • Vitis riparia, the riverbank grapevine, sometimes used for winemaking and for jam. Native to the entire Eastern U.S. and north to Quebec.
    • Vitis aestivalis, the summer grape, native to the Eastern United States, especially the Southeastern United States.
    • Vitis rotundifolia (syn. Muscadinia rotundifolia), the muscadine, used for jams and wine. Native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico.
    • Vitis rupestris, the rock grapevine, used for breeding of Phylloxera resistant rootstock. Native to the Southern United States.
    • Vitis coignetiae, the crimson glory vine, a species from East Asia grown as an ornamental plant for its crimson autumn foliage.
    • Vitis amurensis, native to the Asian continent, including parts of Siberia and China.
    • Vitis vulpina, the frost grape, native to the Eastern United States, from Massachusetts to Florida, and west to Nebraska, Kansas, and Texas. [16] Treated by some as a synonym of V. riparia. [17]
    • Vitis californica, the California wild grape, or Northern California grape, or Pacific grape, is a wild grape species widespread across much of California as well as southwestern Oregon.

    There are many cultivars of grapevines most are cultivars of V. vinifera.

    Hybrid grapes also exist, and these are primarily crosses between V. vinifera and one or more of V. labrusca, V. riparia or V. aestivalis. Hybrids tend to be less susceptible to frost and disease (notably phylloxera), but wine from some hybrids may have a little of the characteristic "foxy" taste of V. labrusca.

    The Latin word Vitis has feminine grammatical gender, [18] and therefore species names with adjectival specific epithets take feminine forms, such as V. vinifera. [19] [a]

    The fruit of several Vitis species are grown commercially for consumption as fresh grapes and for fermentation into wine. [21] Vitis vinifera is the most important such species. [22]

    The leaves of several species of grapevine are edible and are used in the production of dolmades and Vietnamese lot leaves. [23]


    Grass Identification Tips

    Because the leaves and flowers of grasses can often look similar to one another, being able to identify the unique anatomical features that can be used to differentiate between the various grass genera and species is important. 

    A spike or bristle extending off grass seeds found in some grass species

    Area at base of leaf that wraps around the stem of grass plant

    Membrane or fringe of hairs near the area where the leaf sheath & blade meet (called the collar)

    Extension at base of leaf blade present in some grass species adjacent to collar between blade and sheath

    Type of flower where flower clusters are attached to stem by branchlets connected to branches coming off the stem

    Type of flower where flower clusters are attached to stem by branches connected to the stem


    Inflorescence

    The reproductive organs of flowering plants are the flowers. Flowers are produced after a period of vegetative growth. The flowers may be borne singly or in clusters.

    Flowers when borne singly are said to be solitary (eg) Hibiscus rosa sinensis (shoe flower), if in clusters they form an inflorescence. Inflorescence When several flowers arise in a cluster on a common axis, the structure is referred to as an inflorescence.

    The common axis is the inflorescence axis which is also called as rachis or peduncle. Several single flowers are attached to the inflorescence axis. In case of plants possessing underground rhizomes, the rachis or peduncle arises directly from the rhizome. Such a rachis is referred to as scape. In the case of lotus, the scape gives rise to a solitary flower.

    In plants like onion, the scape gives rise to an inflorescence. Based on the location, the inflorescence may be classified into 3 types.

    (ii) Intercalary Inflorescence and

    (iii) Axillary Inflorescence.

    In plants like Callistemon the inflorescence is found in between the stem. This is called intercalary inflorescence. Generally, based on the arrangement, structure and organisation of flowers on the axis, inflorescences are classified into various types.


    Inflorescence Questions and Answers

    Q1. Arrangement of flowers on the floral axis is

    Q2. Pedicellate bisexual flowers borne acropetally on an elongated peduncle form an inflorescence called

    Q3. The inflorescence of Coriander is

    Q4. In a compound umbel, each umbellule is subtended by

    Q5. In Candytuft, the inflorescence is

    Q6. Pedicellate flowers arising from a single point from

    Q7. The whorl of bracts present below the inflorescence of Sunflower is

    Q8. Inflorescence consisting of sessile bisexual flowers arranged acropetally on an elongated axis is

    Q9. An inflorescence appearing like a flower which is not racemose is

    Q10. In which of the following, the growing point ends in a flower

    Q11. Verticillaster has

    1. A typical raceme
    2. Condensed dichasial cymes
    3. Condensed polychasial cymes
    4. A mixed spadix

    Q12. Both hypanthodium and cyathium possess

    1. Unisexual flowers
    2. Bisexual sessile flowers
    3. Bisexual pedicellate flowers
    4. Sterile peduncle

    Q13. Racemose inflorescence having branched peduncle is

    Q14. In a raceme the flower arrangement is

    Q15. The arrangement of flowers in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is

    Q16. Inflorescence consisting of unisexual sessile flowers is

    Q18. Multiparous cyme occurs in

    Q19. A scorpioid cyme having all the flowers in the same plane is

    Q20. In Anthocephalus the inflorescence is

    Q21. Name the inflorescence in which flowers reach the same level through they arise from different points

    Q22. Which one of the following has compound umbel

    Q23. A branching system of the plant bearing flower is

    Q24. Name the inflorescence in which the peduncle is extremely short and bears flowers and equal pedicel length

    Q26. Inflorescence typical of family Gramineae/Poaceae is

    Q27. In family compositae, the type of inflorescence is

    Q28. Cyathium is characterised by

    1. A central female flower
    2. Several peripheral male flowers
    3. An involucres of fused bracts
    4. All the above

    Q29. Which inflorescence has biparous cyme ending in uniparous cymes

    Q30. Inflorescence is meant for

    1. Bearing of flowers
    2. Protection of delicate floral parts
    3. Ensuring cross pollination
    4. Proper dispersal of seeds

    Q31. Involucres forms a cup around the inflorescence of

    Q32. Dichasial cyme occurs in

    Q33. A plant bearing solitary flowers is

    1. Brassica campestris
    2. Helianthus annuus
    3. Hibiscus rosa-sinsensis
    4. Salvia officinalis

    Q34. A plant having hypanthodium inflorescence is

    Q35. In Mulberry, the inflorescence is

    Q36. The inflorescence of Mimosa is

    Q37. The type of inflorescence in Hamelia is

    Q38. A flask-shaped fleshy receptacle enclosing both the types of flowers is present in

    Q39. In Banana, the inflorescence is

    Q40. The female inflorescence of Maize is

    Q41. Development of flowers on old stems is an example of

    Q42. In a corymb, all the flowers

    1. Arise from the same spot
    2. Are covered by a sheath
    3. Are brought to the same level
    4. Are sessile

    Q43. Which ones are related

    1. Dichasium and hypanthodium
    2. Verticillaster and spike
    3. Hypanthodium and catkin
    4. Umbel and corymb

    Q44. An inflorescence having sessile flowers, a flattened receptacle and an involucres of bracts is


    Watch the video: Special type of Inflorescences. Verticellaster. Cyathium. Hypanthodium @Venkat Botany (January 2022).