Information

What is the difference between Crossbreeding, Outbreeding and Outcrossing?


I only found one book which isn't a textbook named Storey's Illustrated Guide to 96 Horse Breeds of North America By Judith Dutson (not sure if it is good enough to follow) that defined these terms.

Outbreeding/ outcrossing is deliberately crossing one line of horse within a breed to a very distant or unrelated line. The term is also occasionally used as a synonym for crossbreeding.

Crossbreeding is the deliberate crossing of horses of different breeds.

My understanding:

Outbreeding or Outcrossing is the mating between two individuals of a breed but different varieties/sub-varieties.

Crossbreeding is the mating between two individuals of different breeds (could be intraspecific or interspecific as well).

Are these definitions correct?


Answer in keywords

Inbreeding : related individual,same breed

Outbreeding

  1. Cross breeding : between different breeds

  2. Outcrossing : unrelated individual,same breed,no common ancestor

Detailed answer

Inbreeding it is a mating within the same breed between different superior male and superior female. Inbreeding between close relatives can cause inbreeding depression like decreased Vigour , fertility and productivity. It is therefore advisable to mte superior animals of different population of the same breed .

Outbreeding is mating between unrelated animals of same or different breeds.

Outcrossing is mating between unrelated animals of same breed with no common ancestor for at least 4 to 6 generation. Offspring formed from such a cross is called out cross .

Cross breeding is mating between superior animals of different breeds for raising new breeds for improving local breeds.

Please note: Outcrossing and cross breeding are two types of Outbreeding.

If you have any further doubts please ask . Hope it helps!!


In dog breeding, outcrossing is the mating of two unrelated dogs within the same breed.

Outcrossing should not be mistaken with cross-breeding which is the mating of two different breeds. Rather, in order to outcross, the dogs have to be of the same breed albeit from different bloodlines. The prime objective is to breed two dogs that are completely unrelated genetically. Therefore, the two mating dogs must come from separate bloodlines. These bloodlines have to have at least a four generational pedigree gap of no common ancestors. This is due to the fact that genes are substantially concentrated during the first four generations.

Outcrossing in dog breeding provides ample opportunities to regulate diversity within the genetics of your breed. Due to other encouraging benefits, an outcross can definitely improve your linebreeding practice in a general sense, but it is most advisable to do this when specific intentions are established. It is actually considered a norm within breed standards, as opposed to what the general population erroneously believes. In fact, animals who live in the wild are prime examples of how the norm of outcrossing is practiced.

With the introduction of new blood in a line, recessive traits are able to cross over the entirety of the population. In doing so, genetic variation is greatly increased and thus, protecting the line from extinction. In general, offspring that result from an out-cross tend to exhibit more hybrid vigor (heterosis). Often times, outcrossing in canine breeding is considered a “wildcard” approach to breeding due to the simple fact that breeders do not know for sure how the two separate lines are going to interact with each other.


First, the definitions:

Inbreeding is the very close breeding of relatives. Parent-offspring and sibling-sibling breedings are what most people are referring to when they mention inbreeding, but technically pairings such as aunt/uncle-niece/nephew, cousins, and grandparent-offspring are also inbreeding. The percentage of inbreeding increases depending on how closely related the animals are. For instance, if a female is bred back to a male that is her sire but also her cousin, that’s an even higher percentage of inbreeding than a simple sire-daughter pairing of otherwise unrelated animals.


Taking advantage of heterosis

Heterosis is the production advantage that can be obtained from crossing breeds, or strains, which are genetically diverse. The new combinations of genetic material can lead to production advantages over and above the average of the two parent breeds or strains. To be of economic advantage, the new production levels need to be above those of either parent strain or breed – otherwise you are better off sticking with the superior parent line.

Heterosis tends to be greater for traits – such as fitness or fertility traits – which are less likely to respond to conventional selection. For example, the level of heterosis achievable for fertility traits is likely to be double that which might be obtained for growth or carcase traits.


Genetic Effects of Crossbreeding

The genetic effects of crossbreeding are the opposite of the genetic effects of inbreeding. Inbreeding results in depression with lowered rate of reproduction, reduced calf viability, rate of gain, delayed sexual maturity and delayed attainment of body maturity. In general, the same traits that exhibit the most inbreeding depression (low heritability traits like reproductive performance) are the same traits that exhibit the largest amount of heterosis under crossbreeding.

There are two basic genetic requirements for a trait to exhibit heterosis: (1) There must be genetic diversity between the breeds crossed and (2) there must be some non-additive gene effects present for the particular trait involved. The failure of either one of these conditions being fulfilled for a particular cross for some trait would result in that trait exhibiting no heterosis. In such a case, the expected performance of the crossbred offsprings would simply be the average of the performance levels of the particular straightbred parents involved in the cross. For those traits that express heterosis, the magnitude of heterosis will be dependent upon how much genetic diversity exists between the two parent breeds.

Genetic diversity refers to the degree of genetic similarity or dissimilarity that exists between the two breeds. Breeds that have similar origins and that have been subjected to similar types of selection pressure during their development will be expected to be much more alike genetically (small amount of genetic diversity) than would breeds that have quite different origins and have been selected for different purposes during their development.

Non-additive gene effects refer to the kinds of gene actions that exist with regard to the many gene pairs that are involved in determining a particular performance trait. These effects fall in two categories: (1) non-additive gene effects that are expressed by individual gene pairs (due to level of dominance) and (2) non-additive gene effects that occur due to an interaction between the effects of genes at one locus with the effects of genes at one or more loci (epistasis).

Non-additive gene effects expressed in a trait are caused by the level of dominance that exists between the different genes at a particular location on chromosomes. The levels or kinds of dominance that can exist between two different genes at a locus is illustrated in Figure 1. In this illustration the more favorable gene (the one having the biggest effect on increasing the performance level for the trait) is symbolized as A, and the less desirable gene (the one haling a smaller effect) is symbolized as a. The non-additive gene effects at individual loci (gene pairs) can be caused by complete dominance, partial dominance and overdominance. If the gene effects are strictly additive, the effect of the heterozygote (Aa) is exactly intermediate between the effects of the two homozygous geneotypes (AA and aa) as illustrated in Figure 1. Loci (gene pairs) with this kind of gene action will not make contributions to heterosis. Complete dominance is a very common genetic property that exists when the effect of the heterozygote is closer to that of one of the homozygotes without being exactly the same. Overdominance describes the situation whereby the heterozygote has a more extreme effect than either homozygotes. (As illustrated in Figure 1, the effect of Aa exceeds that of both aa and AA). To whatever extent they occur, gene pairs that exhibit overdominance would have a relatively large effect on the amount of heterosis exhibited by a trait. It is not really known, however, how prevalent gene pairs exhibiting overdominance are among the many loci that control livestock performance traits. Although some examples of overdominant gene pairs are known, this phenomenon is not nearly as frequently encountered as in the case with partial to complete dominance.

Epistatic gene action involved gene combinations at one locus (gene pair) interacting with the effects of gene combinations at other loci (gene pairs). There are many different kinds of epistatic effects but their relative influence has been very difficult to measure because of their complexity. It seems doubtful that these epistatic effects would be the primary cause of heterosis in the case of most traits.

It has not been possible to experimentally determine which of these kinds of non-additive effects are most important. In reality, probably all types of non-additive effects are involved in most traits, and their relative influence varies from trait to trait.

The most practical procedure for making use of heterosis in beef cattle appears to be the continued maintenance of breeds or lines and crossing them to find those combinations that yield the highest performance levels under the wide range of existing environmental and management situations. Such a procedure will work regardless of which kinds of non-additive gene effects are responsible for the heterosis.

Because of the increased heterozygosity involved in the crossbred individual, intermating among crossbred individuals results in increased genetic variation. Consequently, crossbred populations are less likely to breed true than are straightbred populations. The general result of intermating crossbreds is a reduction in the numbers of heterozygous gene pairs and consequently a regression toward the average performance of the original straightbred parents. Thus, it seems very difficult, if not impossible, to fix heterosis, that is, to maintain heterosis and its resulting high performance by mating those crossbred individuals having the highest degree of heterosis. Consequently, to fully capitalize on increased productivity due to heterosis, it is necessary to remake the crosses among straightbreds each, generation.

Figure 1. Illustration of kinds of gene action that can occur at a particular locus (gene pair).


What is Dichogamy in biology?

dichogamy. the condition, in some flowering plants, in which the pistils and stamens mature at different times, thus preventing self-pollination. &mdash dichogamous, adj. See also: Flowers, Plants.

Also, what is Geitonogamy in biology? Geitonogamy (from Greek geiton (&gamma&epsilonί&tau&omega&nu) = neighbor + gamein (&gamma&alpha&mu&epsilon?&nu) = to marry) is a type of self-pollination. In flowering plants, pollen is transferred from a flower to another flower on the same plant, and in animal pollinated systems this is accomplished by a pollinator visiting multiple flowers on the same plant.

Thereof, what is meant by Herkogamy?

Herkogamy (or hercogamy) is a common strategy employed by hermaphroditic angiosperms to reduce sexual interference between male (anthers) and female (stigma) function. Herkogamy differs from other such strategies (e.g. dichogamy) by supplying a spatial separation of the anthers and stigma.

What do you mean by Protandry?

1 : a state in hermaphroditic systems that is characterized by the development of male organs or maturation of their products before the appearance of the corresponding female product thus inhibiting self-fertilization and that is encountered commonly in mints, legumes, and composites and among diverse groups of


Inbreeding

Mating animals that are related causes inbreeding. Inbreeding is often described as “narrowing the genetic base” because the mating of related animals results in offspring that have more genes in common. Inbreeding is used to concentrate desirable traits. Mild inbreeding has been used in some breeds of dogs and has been extensively used in laboratory mice and rats. For example, mice have been bred to be highly sensitive to compounds that might be detrimental or useful to humans. These mice are highly inbred so that researchers can obtain the same response with replicated treatments.

Inbreeding is generally detrimental in domestic animals. Increased inbreeding is accompanied by reduced fertility, slower growth rates, greater susceptibility to disease, and higher mortality rates. As a result, producers try to avoid mating related animals. This is not always possible, though, when long-continued selection for the same traits is practiced within a small population, because parents of future generations are the best candidates from the last generation, and some inbreeding tends to accumulate. The rate of inbreeding can be reduced, but, if inbreeding depression becomes evident, some method of introducing more diverse genes will be needed. The most common method is some form of crossbreeding.


1. Introduction

Parasitism has arisen independently at least seven times in the phylum Nematoda, with animal parasitism having arisen at least four times (Blaxter et al., 1998). Nematodes that have evolved to engage symbiotic enterobacteria in insect endoparasitism are called entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and this type of parasitism has arisen at least twice within the phylum Nematoda (Adams et al., 2006). EPNs kill infected insect hosts within 24� h p.i. (Poinar, 1990), making them beneficial for use in biological control (the practice of using natural enemies to control endemic or exotic pests). Steinernema carpocapsae is a model EPN due to its cosmopolitan distribution, broad host range and high tolerance of environmental extremes (desiccation, hypoxia, UV, heat and cold tolerance (Grewal, 2002 Hominick, 2002)). Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes associate with and carry Xenorhabdus nematophila bacteria in a specialized structure called the receptacle, located at the anterior end of the nematode intestine of the infective juvenile nematode life stage (Bird and Akhurst, 1983 Martens et al., 2003 Snyder et al., 2007). Xenorhabdus nematophila bacteria provide nutrition to the nematode and assist the nematode in killing infected insects. The nematode penetrates into the haemocoel of a potential insect host (Poinar, 1990) where it releases the bacteria. Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes are gonochoristic (reproducing via males and females) and can only reproduce when both sexes infect the same host. After two to three generations of reproduction, depending on the size of the host and the founding population, unknown cues (possibly high nematode density and nutrient depletion, Popiel et al., 1989) cause most of the nematodes to develop into the infective juvenile life stage. Infective juvenile progeny are non-feeding, developmentally arrested L3s, and are encased in an environmentally protective cuticle. Infective juveniles emerge from a resource-depleted cadaver in search of a new insect host.

Entomopathogenic nematodes are commonly employed against insect pests in agroecosytems (Gaugler and Kaya, 1990 Kaya et al., 2006). In field applications entomopathogenic nematodes induce target insect mortality with 0% to 100% efficacy across a wide variety of environments (Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2002). Varying rates of insect mortality likely result from a variety of factors, including compatibility of the EPN and insect host, environmental conditions, and the timing of application. Another factor that reduces the ability of EPNs to kill their insect hosts is trait deterioration in parasitism and other fitness-related traits that occurs during repeated culturing in laboratory or industrial settings. Trait deterioration after laboratory rearing has been reported for heat tolerance (Shapiro et al., 1996 Bilgrami et al., 2006), longevity (Gaugler and Campbell, 1991), infectivity, sex ratio, reproductive capacity (Stuart and Gaugler, 1996 Bilgrami et al., 2006) and virulence and `tail standing' (Bai et al., 2005 Bilgrami et al., 2006). The causes of trait deterioration, or practices that can minimize or reduce trait deterioration, are unknown.

Trait change under conditions of mass production may result from genetic processes including inbreeding depression or inadvertent selection (Hopper et al., 1993). In S. carpocapsae, inbreeding depression is a likely cause of trait deterioration during repeated laboratory culture due to its mating style. Gonochoristic organisms rely upon sexual recombination to mask deleterious alleles that arise from mutation at low frequencies in a population and are more sensitive to inbreeding depression than are selfing species (e.g. Dolgin et al., 2007). Other genetic processes may also be at work, such as inadvertent selection of nematode lines for phenotypes that are beneficial under conditions of mass production but deleterious under field conditions. Also, non-genetic factors such as disease may contribute to trait deterioration under mass production conditions.

Our objective was to determine the underlying causes of deterioration in EPNs, hoping to inform nematode production for biocontrol programs. In this study we used six nematode lines (experimental lines 1𠄵 and a control line) reported previously (Bilgrami et al., 2006). All of the lines were derived from the same parental line by the approach shown in Fig. 1 (some of the lines were developed as part of an earlier study by Bilgrami et al., 2006). Two different S. carpocapsae populations were isolated from two different sites (in New Jersey and Arkansas, USA) and mixed together to create the base line. The base line was divided into six groups called experimental lines 1𠄵 and the control line, which were kept as separate cultures thereafter. The experimental lines were serially passed through Galleria mellonella 20 times as completely separate lines. The control line was passed once per five experimental line passes in order to maintain stocks that were viable but had undergone fewer rounds of reproduction. For each passage the infective juveniles that emerged from an insect infection were used to infect a new G. mellonella pool and the previous generation was discarded. Bilgrami et al. (2006) showed that the experimental lines showed reduced trait values for reproductive capacity, heat tolerance, virulence and `tail standing' (Bilgrami et al., 2006). Trait values of the control line after five passages were similar to the trait values displayed by the lines prior to laboratory culture (Bilgrami et al., 2006). As noted above, most emergent infective juveniles are F3 progeny (Wang and Bedding, 1996), so a single passage represents approximately three generations.

Steinernema carpocapsae experimental, control and outcross line creation. Graphical representation of the approach used to generate experimental and control lines (Bilgrami et al., 2006) and outcrosses. The dashed line in the middle separates the work done in Bilgrami et al. (2006), provided for context, from the work in this study. Each thick arrowhead ([c4right]) represents one passage through Galleria mellonella insect hosts, which is two to three generations of nematode reproduction. Each thin arrowhead (→) represents one generation of in vitro growth on lipid agar. Dots (…) represent five nematode passages through G. mellonella. Backgrounds correspond to culture or line conditions. For simplicity, outcrossed line creation is depicted. A similar approach with different appropriate parental lines generated crossbred and sib-crossed lines. Light grey background: in vivo passage of nematodes through G. mellonella dark grey background: in vivo passage of control line nematodes through G. mellonella white background with border in vitro crossing and reproduction of nematodes on lipid agar.

The traits measured by Bilgrami et al. (2006) were direct and indirect indicators of field efficacy. `Tail standing' (formerly called nictation but see Kruitbos and Wilson, 2010 for semantic revision), a predatory behavior requisite to jumping, and virulence are direct measures of traits important for field efficacy, and the virulence assay approach used has been shown to have good correlation with field efficacy trials (Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2002 Grewal et al., 2005). Reproductive capacity and heat tolerance are not directly related to insect virulence but are important for commercial distribution programs. Lower in vitro reproduction reduces the production capacity of commercial distributors and lower in vivo reproduction reduces nematode persistence following application. Heat tolerance is also important since temperature is a confounding issue for nematode storage, transport, commercial production and field persistence (Shapiro-Ilan and Gaugler, 2002 Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2002 Grewal et al., 2005). As always, good correlation with field performance can only be confirmed by field trials.

We hypothesize a model where trait deterioration in these laboratory cultured nematode lines has genetic causes resulting from inbreeding of founding populations. If so, outcrossing laboratory cultured nematodes with nematodes isolated in the wild should lead to recovery or an increase in trait values. If trait deterioration results from genetic changes, deteriorated traits could be recovered in progeny of the trait-deteriorated lines by outbreeding trait-deteriorated lines with an undeteriorated line. Alternatively, if non-genetic factors are responsible for trait deterioration, outbred progeny should have similar fitness trait values to their trait-deteriorated ancestral lines. Crossbreeding of inbred lines should assess the causality of inbreeding versus inadvertent selection since recovery of deteriorated traits in crossbred trait deteriorated lines should only be observed if the lines are genetically distinct if lines were selected towards the same traits, crossbreeding of inbred lines should not result in trait recovery.


Top 7 Systems of Breeding Used for Livestock Improvement

This article throws light upon the top seven systems of breeding used for livestock improvement. The systems are: 1. Inbreeding 2. Line Breeding 3. Outbreeding 4. outcrossing 5. Grading Up 6. Cross- Breeding 7. Species Hybridization.

System # 1. Inbreeding:

Inbreeding is a mating system in which the males and females mated to beget progeny are more closely related than the average in the population from which they come.

This is another tool in the hands of the animal breeder which if judiciously used, can bring about improvement in farm animals. Inbreeding of livestock makes more pairs of genes in the population homozygous. Whenever there is inbreeding, there will be one or more common ancestors from which, part of the gene samples (gametes) arise.

Inbreeding Coefficient:

Inbreeding coefficient, measures the probable increase in homozygosity resulting from the mating of individuals more closely related than the average of the population.

There are two common ancestors P and Q, and two independent pathways. Sire P is having an inbreeding coefficient of 0.125. Computation of Fx of individual ‘T’ is shown in Table below.

Uses of inbreeding:

i. Inbreeding can be used to form distinct lines or families within a breed. This can be advantageously put to use in family selection, especially when the traits selected for have low heritability.

ii. One of the widely used applications of inbreeding is to develop inbred lines that can be used for crossing purposes to exploit hybrid vigour.

iii. Inbreeding will be useful to identify and cull undesirable recessive genes. Thus, the gene frequency for that undesirable gene in the population can be reduced.

iv. Inbreeding increases both homozygosity and prepotency (capacity to stamp their characteristics on the offspring) as most of the desirable genes are dominant. So, good inbred animals have a better to the exclusion of those of the other parent.

v. Inbreeding can be used to study the actual genetic worth of an animal by mating it to 24-35 of its own daughters.

vi. In laboratory animals, highly inbred lines are very useful in many experiments.

Most breeders of farm animals as well as commercial producers avoid intense inbreeding for the following reasons:

i. Undesirable traits appear with increasing frequency as the intensity of inbreeding increases.

ii. The growth rate of farm animals is reduced by inbreeding.

iii. Both in laboratory and farm animals inbreeding reduces the reproductive efficiency of inbred animals.

iv. Though vigour is difficult to measure and express in quantitative terms, visual evidences show that inbred animals are less vigorous and fertile.

System # 2. Line Breeding:

Line breeding basically comes under inbreeding. Many commercial breeders are afraid of intense inbreeding. But, at times when they locate an outstanding individual, they would like to maintain the genes of that individual in the population as far as possible.

The actual programme of line breeding can take a variety of forms, from close line breeding of sire to daughter (or son to dam) to very mild type of line breeding.

At least two sires (fathers) are necessary in the herd to practice line breeding system. Otherwise, inbreeding will rise to such levels that many recessive genes, which are usually deleterious, may surface and produce defective individuals. Usually, line breeding is more profitable when relationship is kept high to an outstanding sire than an outstanding dam as the males can produce larger number of progeny.

System # 3. Outbreeding:

This is a livestock system in which individuals, less related than the average of the population to which they belong, are mated. For all practical purposes, a mating can be considered outbreeding system if the individuals involved do not have a common ancestor in the proceeding first four to six generations.

The genetic effects of outbreeding are opposite to those of inbreeding. Whereas inbreeding increases homozygosity, outbreeding system tends to make more pairs of genes heterozygous. Therefore, outbred animals are less likely to breed true than are inbred animals.

System # 4. Outcrossing:

Outcrossing is mating system of unrelated animals within the same pure breed. In a period of many years, the various breeds in many Western countries registered progress mainly through a system of outcrossing in which the best available, but unrelated sires were continuously selected for use on the females in a herd or flock.

The usefulness of outcrossing system depends mainly on the effectiveness of selection. Therefore, when selection becomes ineffective, other breeding techniques will have to be employed. There is very little to gain by outcrossing in outstanding herds except an occasional outcrossing to regain lost vigour or to introduce new genes.

System # 5. Grading Up:

When we want to improve nondescript scrub animals, grading up system is a useful tool, instead of outright replacement with individuals from an improved breed.

In this type of livestock system, sires of a pure breed are successively used to mate nondescript females and their progeny, generation after generation. In the first mating, the F1progeny will get 50 per cent of genes from the purebred sire. If it is a female, on sexual maturity, it will be mated to another purebred sire of the same breed.

The F2 progeny so bora will have 75 per cent of purebred inheritance. In subsequent generations, the part of inheritance remaining from the original scrub female will be halved with each crossing.

After four to five generations of crossing with purebred sires of a breed, the graded progeny will have 93.8 to 96.9 per cent respectively of the genes of the pure breed. For all practical purposes, this animal is as good as the purebred.

System # 6. Cross-Breeding:

Mating of animals of two or more different breeds is known as crossbreeding system. Crossbreeding is mainly used for commercial production. Its use, in countries where highly developed pure breeds are available, is to maintain heterosis, which cannot be fixed by inbreeding techniques. But, in India and many other developing countries, crossbreeding system has another very important use.

The native breeds of many species of livestock have very low genetic potential for production. But, they have qualities like, adaptability to hot climatic conditions, resistance to many diseases prevalent in the tropical regions (for example Foot and Mouth Disease) and general thriftiness under inferior feeding and management conditions.

In many species of farm stock, high producing breeds from advanced countries, when introduced into tropical and sub-tropical conditions, however, Experience has shown that, in cattle under the present level of management in this country, introduction of exotic inheritance between 50 and 63 per cent is optimum.

Any further attempt to increase the exotic inheritance to increase production is offset by loss of their ability to adapt to the adverse environment and to resist tropical diseases.

One of the disadvantages of crossbreeding system is that the offspring lack uniformity of coat colour and type. But, crossbreds may be more uniform for some of the economic traits such as litter size and weight at weaning than purebreds or inbred lines.

System # 7. Species Hybridization:

Crossing of individuals from two species is referred to as species hybridization . This is the widest possible out-breeding system. It is possible only between related species which might have descended from common parent stock somewhere back in the evolutionary process.

A well-known example for species hybridization system is the mule, which is a cross between the jack ass and the mare. The mule is valued for centuries for its ability to work hard under the most adverse conditions. The mules are sterile.


Hybrid-breeding

As we have seen, a hybrid dog belongs to the first generation offspring that results from mating two purebred dogs. They have a bigger gene pool, which brings them a unique trait known as hybrid vigor, which makes them healthier than purebred dogs, especially when they have a high coefficient of inbreeding.

Hybrids, designer dogs and crossbred dogs are the same for the most part the unique difference is that the term hybrid is only used for the first generation litter.

Hybrid breeding helps to create dogs with unique features such as being hypoallergenic and smaller, allowing breeders to cater to a unique segment in the market because they can create dogs that have highly sought after features.

As we have seen, crossbreeding has been widely used for centuries. Therefore, we can find many examples of hybrids throughout history:

  • Doberman Pinschers: The result of mixing Beaucerons, Greyhounds, Rottweilers and Great Danes. The responsibility of designing this dog was Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann during the late 19 th century
  • Australian Cattle Dogs: The result of mixing Collies, Black, Tan Kelpies and Dingos. It responded to the needs of farmers, who needed a dog with a strong character, the firm will and enough roughness to handle cattle

In consequence, it also involves the careful analysis of each breed and bloodline, to obtain the most desirable results.

Now that you have been properly introduced to the different dog breeding techniques, you have a solid background to get started as a breeder. Nonetheless, remember that there is not a single best dog breeding technique because each one is more useful under specific circumstances and depending on your goal. You are aware of the advantages and the risks, and therefore, now you can decide which one will fit your purposes the best.


Watch the video: Animal Breeding. Inbreeding and Outbreeding. Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production. NEET (January 2022).