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9.7: Introduction to Seed Plants - Biology


What you’ll learn to do: Classify seed plants

The lush palms on tropical shorelines do not depend on water for the dispersal of their pollen, fertilization, or the survival of the zygote—unlike mosses, liverworts, and ferns of the terrain. The showy opium poppy is valued both as an ornamental flower and as a source of potent opiate compounds.


Secondary Metabolites: Meaning, Role and Types

Plants produce thousands types of chemicals. Some of the organic compounds like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids, chlorophylls, hemes are required for their basic metabolic processes and found throughout the plant kingdom. These organic com­pounds are called primary metabolites or biomolecules. These are produced in large quantities and can easily be extracted from the plants.

Many plants, fungi and microbes of certain genera and families synthesize a number of organic compounds which are not involved in primary metabolism (pho­tosynthesis, respiration, and protein and lipid metabolism) and seem to have no direct function in growth and development of plants. Such compounds are called secondary metabolites (secondary plant products or natural products) (Table 9.7).

These compounds are accessary rather than central to the functioning of the plants in which they are found. These compounds are produced in small quantities and their extraction from the plant is difficult and expensive.

They accumulate in small quantities only in specific parts of plants. These are derivatives of primary metabolites. By the cultivation of plant cells in culture media, secondary metabolites can be produced on large scale.

Role of Secondary Metabolites:

(1) Some of them attract animals for pollination and seed dispersal.

(2) They are used by the plants in their defence against herbivores and pathogens.

(3) They act as agents of plant-plant competition.

(4) They are used in making drugs, insecticides, flavours, pigments, scents, rubber, spices and other industrial materials like gums, resins for human welfare.

Types of Secondary Metabolites:

These secondary metabolites are highly numerous in number, chemically diverse in nature and belong to three groups.


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"Introduction To Germination Seed" Essays and Research Papers

The Effects of a Seed Coat in Seed Germination Mario Monroe INT1 Task 3 The Effects of a Seed Coat in Seed Germination Abstract Seed germination is an important aspect in plants growth and food production. It is therefore it’s of uttermost importance to know the effective ways of seed germination so as to improve food production. This research was therefore prompted by the rising issue of farmers buying low quality and a damaged maize seed from unscrupulous sellers and this has led to deterioration.

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Seed Germination

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9.7: Introduction to Seed Plants - Biology

All articles published by MDPI are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license. No special permission is required to reuse all or part of the article published by MDPI, including figures and tables. For articles published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license, any part of the article may be reused without permission provided that the original article is clearly cited.

Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Feature Papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and undergo peer review prior to publication.

The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. This type of paper provides an outlook on future directions of research or possible applications.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.


The Evolution of Plants

Plants first colonized the land over 430 million years ago, having evolved from some of the most primitive forms of life. Since then, plants have played a major role in supplying the atmospheric oxygen we all need to survive. But how did plants evolve, how has their distribution and diversity been affected by changes in climate over millions of years - and how can these processes be studied?

The Evolution of Plants blends evidence from the fossil record and data from biomolecular studies to tell the story of plant evolution from the earliest forms of life to the present day. Focusing on the key events during the evolution of plants - from the colonization of land to the first forests, the emergence of seed plants to the evolution of flowering plants - its straightforward explanations and clear illustrations provide the reader with the most accessible introduction to plant evolution available.

With stunning biome maps illustrating the global distribution of plants during the different periods of life on Earth, the book explains how the diversity of vegetation has changed in response to climate, reinforcing the close link between climate change and the process of biological evolution.

It is a contemporary account of a dynamic field, which is perfect for any student looking for a broad, balanced introduction to the subject.

Online Resource Centre
The Online Resource Centre to accompany The Evolution of Plants features
- figures from the book in electronic format, for use by registered adopters
- Journal Clubs, which encourage students to critically evaluate and engage with published research related to topics explored in the book


9.7: Introduction to Seed Plants - Biology

All articles published by MDPI are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license. No special permission is required to reuse all or part of the article published by MDPI, including figures and tables. For articles published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license, any part of the article may be reused without permission provided that the original article is clearly cited.

Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Feature Papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and undergo peer review prior to publication.

The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. This type of paper provides an outlook on future directions of research or possible applications.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.


Sections Summary

Many plants reproduce asexually as well as sexually. In asexual reproduction, part of the parent plant is used to generate a new plant. Grafting, layering, and micropropagation are some methods used for artificial asexual reproduction. The new plant is genetically identical to the parent plant from which the stock has been taken. Asexually reproducing plants thrive well in stable environments.

Plants have different life spans, dependent on species, genotype, and environmental conditions. Parts of the plant, such as regions containing meristematic tissue, continue to grow, while other parts experience programmed cell death. Leaves that are no longer photosynthetically active are shed from the plant as part of senescence, and the nutrients from these leaves are recycled by the plant. Other factors, including the presence of hormones, are known to play a role in delaying senescence.


You might already know that if you plant a seed it will grow into a plant. But did you know that inside of every seed is a baby plant? The inside of a plant seed has three main parts: the embryo is the baby plant, the endosperm is food for the baby plant, and the cotyledon(s), which look like leaves and contain the endosperm. All of the parts of the baby plant are enclosed and protected by a special covering called the seed coat. The seed coat protects the baby plant embryo from many different conditions, some of these conditions can be: drying out, freezing temperatures, heat, radiation, or acidity.

Some seeds have very large and tough seed coats while others have very weak and fragile seed coats. This is because different kinds of plants have adapted to different environments, and so need to be protected from different things. Desert plants need protection from drought, arctic plants need to be protected from cold winter temperatures, and plants from pine forests often need protection from forest fire. In fact, seeds from some forest plants need a forest fire before they can sprout through their tough, protective seed coats!

Seed sprouting is called germination, and is the process during which the baby plant emerges from the seed and develops its first set of true leaves. Germination begins when the seed absorbs water, which causes the endosperm to swell and pop open the seed coat. Then the embryo will grow and develop its first set of true leaves, using food stored in the endosperm for energy. Some seeds take a very long time to germinate, while others germinate very quickly. For this experiment, we have chosen radish seeds, which germinate very quickly in 3 to 5 days.

Plants use energy from the sun to grow and make food in their leaves. Some of the sun's energy is in the form of ultraviolet radiation, sometimes called UV rays. The UV radiation from the sun is one kind of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation is also produced by many household appliances, like radios, cell phones, televisions, and your microwave. When you use a microwave, the microwaves travel through your food, causing the food to cook. In this science project, you will use a microwave to expose seeds to electromagnetic radiation. Sometimes electromagnetic energy can cause heat, and in your experiment you will heat the seeds by baking them in the oven.


Introduction to Genetics

Introduction to Genetics: Science of Heredity presents a linear programmed text about hereditary and genetics. This book discusses a variety of topics related to heredity and genetics, including chromosomes, genes, Mendelism, mitosis, and meiosis. Organized into six chapters, this book begins with an overview of some of the experiments that first provide an understanding of heredity and laid the foundation of the science of genetics. This text then provides detailed information about the cell and explains how the essential parts of it reproduce and divide. Other chapters consider how the chromosome theory can explain not only the facts of Mendelism, but also the many complications that arise in genetics. This book discusses as well the problems that can happen during the process of mitosis and meiosis. The final chapter deals with the practical problems that confront the plant breeder. This book is a valuable resource for teachers and students of biology.

Introduction to Genetics: Science of Heredity presents a linear programmed text about hereditary and genetics. This book discusses a variety of topics related to heredity and genetics, including chromosomes, genes, Mendelism, mitosis, and meiosis. Organized into six chapters, this book begins with an overview of some of the experiments that first provide an understanding of heredity and laid the foundation of the science of genetics. This text then provides detailed information about the cell and explains how the essential parts of it reproduce and divide. Other chapters consider how the chromosome theory can explain not only the facts of Mendelism, but also the many complications that arise in genetics. This book discusses as well the problems that can happen during the process of mitosis and meiosis. The final chapter deals with the practical problems that confront the plant breeder. This book is a valuable resource for teachers and students of biology.


Watch the video: Vascular Plants = Winning! - Crash Course Biology #37 (December 2021).