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16.E: The Body's Systems (Exercises) - Biology


16.E: The Body's Systems (Exercises)

16.E: The Body's Systems (Exercises) - Biology

Digestive system worksheets and online exercises
Language: English Subject: Natural Science

The digestive system
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by susanansf

Digestive system
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What happens when we eat?
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by PaulaGlzz

Digestion Process
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by teacherliste

NUTRITION 2 - Digestive System
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by tercerocossio

The digestive system
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Digestive system
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by teachermartag

Digestive system gap fill
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by Carly

Digestive system
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by toarof

The Digestive System
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Digestive system
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Digestive system
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Digestive system
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Digestive system
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by Boela

Digestive system
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by NICAMORE

The digestive system
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Digestive system
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by TeacherBlanca

Natural Sciences . digestive system
Grade/level: Tercero de Primaria
by TEACHERANA10


The compelling link between physical activity and the body's defense system

This review summarizes research discoveries within 4 areas of exercise immunology that have received the most attention from investigators: (1) acute and chronic effects of exercise on the immune system, (2) clinical benefits of the exercise-immune relationship, (3) nutritional influences on the immune response to exercise, and (4) the effect of exercise on immunosenescence. These scientific discoveries can be organized into distinctive time periods: 1900-1979, which focused on exercise-induced changes in basic immune cell counts and function 1980-1989, during which seminal papers were published with evidence that heavy exertion was associated with transient immune dysfunction, elevated inflammatory biomarkers, and increased risk of upper respiratory tract infections 1990-2009, when additional focus areas were added to the field of exercise immunology including the interactive effect of nutrition, effects on the aging immune system, and inflammatory cytokines and 2010 to the present, when technological advances in mass spectrometry allowed system biology approaches (i.e., metabolomics, proteomics, lipidomics, and microbiome characterization) to be applied to exercise immunology studies. The future of exercise immunology will take advantage of these technologies to provide new insights on the interactions between exercise, nutrition, and immune function, with application down to the personalized level. Additionally, these methodologies will improve mechanistic understanding of how exercise-induced immune perturbations reduce the risk of common chronic diseases.

Keywords: Aging Exercise Immunology Infection Inflammation Mass Spectrometry Nutrition.

Figures

Key research areas and basic…

Key research areas and basic findings in exercise immunology.

Exercise immunology research can be…

Exercise immunology research can be organized into 4 distinctive periods.

Acute exercise stimulates the interchange…

Acute exercise stimulates the interchange of innate immune system cells and components between…

The contrast in acute immune…

The contrast in acute immune responses to heavy exertion (e.g., a marathon race)…

J-curve model of the relationship…

J-curve model of the relationship between the exercise workload continuum and risk for…

The upper tertiles of fitness…

The upper tertiles of fitness and exercise frequency are associated with reduced numbers…

C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6…

C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) values for obese and athletic groups (data…

Carbohydrate ingestion before and during…

Carbohydrate ingestion before and during exercise attenuates postexercise inflammation.


The Cardiovascular and Immune Systems

At the center of the cardiovascular system is your heart. Along with the blood vessels, it forms a network for carrying blood containing oxygen and nutrients to the body, and removing waste (carbon dioxide). Physical training strengthens your heart and normalizes blood pressure, lowering your risk of heart disease. [see ref 1]

The blood vessels are supported by the lymph vessels and nodes (which make your immune cells). The lymphatic system removes toxins and returns them to the blood circulation. Exercise boosts lymph flow, thus promoting a healthy immune system, which is crucial for fighting infections.


Unit 2 - Effects of Exercise

In this GCSE Biology quiz we look at some of the effects exercise has on our bodies, such as an increase to the cardiovascular system's work rate or the build up of lactic acid due to anaerobic respiration.

Regular exercise is an important part of a healthy lifestyle as it has many beneficial effects on the body. It helps you to control your weight improves your cardiovascular fitness (the cardiovascular system comprises your heart and blood vessels) which means you have more stamina and are generally less tired it strengthens your muscles and tendons makes your bones tougher. and a lot more besides.

When you are exercising, it has a number of physical effects on the body, all because of increased respiration as your muscle cells are working harder. Your body needs to make adjustments to meet this increased demand for oxygen and glucose by the respiring muscles.

You will first notice that your heart rate increases as you start to exercise. This increases the volume of blood reaching the muscles each second. More glucose molecules and oxygen molecules enter your muscle cells than when you are not exercising so they are able to release energy (through aerobic respiration) at a faster rate. Soon after you have begun to exercise, you will then find that you are breathing faster and more deeply. This is because the oxygen reserves in your blood are being used up faster than when you are at rest. By taking in more air to your lungs more often, your body can deliver more oxygen to the hard working cells. It also means that your body is able to rid itself of the waste carbon dioxide at a faster rate too.

If you exercise very hard for longer periods of time, your body cannot supply sufficient oxygen to the muscle cells. The cells will then try to make up for this shortfall of oxygen by using anaerobic respiration. But this is a poor way of releasing energy and so your muscles start to feel fatigued. During anaerobic respiration, lactic acid is formed which can lead to cramp.

Exercise your brain by playing this quiz on the effects of exercise on the body's systems and muscles!


Rehabilitation Strategies and Innovations in Later Life for Traumatic Brain Injury

Aerobics

Aerobic exercise can have beneficial effects in the rehabilitation of cognition in TBI patients as it is believed to support angiogenesis and neurogenesis, both of which are important for brain repair. Aerobic exercise not only enhances cardiorespiratory fitness, but is also beneficial for symptoms like fatigue, impaired cognition and mood disturbances. A supervised aerobic exercise-training program can improve overall mood and acute mood responses in chronic ambulatory TBI patients ( Weinstein et al., 2017 ).

Exercise in TBI patients can ameliorate depressive symptoms, this may be also an indirect effect of improved sleep quality which is commonly affected in TBI ( Weinstein et al., 2017 ).

Preclinical studies show improved learning and memory and upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus in brain injury after exercise. Exercise induces BDNF expression in the hippocampus via peripheral exercise factors, such as lactate and beta-hydroxybutyrate ( Stephan and Sleiman, 2019 ). In a pre-post intervention study, a vigorous aerobic exercise regime undergone for 12 weeks in chronic TBI patients significantly improved cognition. Besides overall cognitive function, specific gains were seen in the domains of processing speed and executive functioning. Moreover, the magnitude of these cognitive gains strongly related to improved cardiorespiratory fitness, supporting the role of aerobic exercise in improving cognition ( Chin et al., 2015 ).

Various mechanisms are thought to be responsible for these benefits of aerobic exercise, including psychological as well as physiological. Psychological factors could be increased self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-image, social interaction with research staff and distraction from worries, anxiety, and depressing thoughts. Physiological mediators have been suggested to improve neuroplasticity and neuroprotection via increased cerebral blood flow, neurogenesis and release of various chemicals such as, vascular endothelial growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and serotonin. Additionally, exercise improves core body temperature, analgesia, and attenuation of stress responsiveness ( Kreber and Griesbach, 2016 Weinstein et al., 2017 ). It is crucial to consider the appropriate timing, type and intensity of exercise when treating TBI patients intense exercise in the acute-post injury phase may prove to be counterproductive by worsening cognition ( Kreber and Griesbach, 2016 ).


16.E: The Body's Systems (Exercises) - Biology

Hide all answers Hide all answers View all answers View all answers Print Try the Quiz

Given the QUESTION, identify the ANSWER

1. Pulse rate in a healthy adult man is _______ beats / minute. (at rest)
• 62-66
• 72-78
• 86-90
• 90-94

4. Identify the blood vessel 'A' in this diagram.

• Pulmonary artery
• Aorta
• Inferior vena cava
• Carotid artery


9. Identify the blood vessel 'D' in this diagram.

• Aorta
• Pulmonary Trunk
• Inferior vena cava
• Superior vena cava

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Self-regulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) can essentially be broken down into two opposing functions: it goes up or it goes down!

In a car, we can press the gas pedal to access more energy, or the brake pedal to slow down or stop. Similarly, the ANS has two parts, or branches: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which makes us go up into greater arousal, and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), which helps us come down into calmer, less aroused states.

Upregulation means there’s more firing of nerve cells (neurons) along a nerve pathway. So, upregulation of the SNS refers to when this “going up” branch of the nervous system is more active. This “pressing of the gas pedal” increases the amount of energy available in the body. This is why the SNS is often referred to as the “fight-or-flight” nervous system, although it can also upregulate in pleasant situations requiring more energy.

Its opposite, and the focus of this article, is downregulation. Sympathetic downregulation brings down the charge along the pathways of the SNS. At the same time, the PNS upregulates, which helps the SNS downregulate. (We will examine the important exception to this general rule in a future article.)

Both upregulation and downregulation of the SNS are biological processes that we can feel and experience happening within us. Recently, a woman I work with in therapy was able to describe the involuntary muscular tensions, unpleasant pangs, and fluttering sensations of her anxiety (upregulation). She also described the wonderful (downregulation) sensations of her body finally letting go into blissful sleep when she settles down in bed at night.

As most of us can intuit, SNS upregulation can feel terrible when it’s a response to something stressful happening. However, SNS upregulation can also feel great when it’s in response to something fun or exciting: our team scoring a touchdown, or dancing when our favorite song comes on. In contrast, SNS downregulation almost always feels soothing, calming, or relaxing.

I am focusing on SNS downregulation because it’s incompatible with states of anxiety, rage, or stress. Additionally, SNS downregulation keeps the SNS in check, so that it doesn’t “overshoot” and produce too much stress to effectively cope with a problem.

So, then, how do we encourage SNS downregulation? How do we help the body settle down into a state in which it can rest, digest, and repair? For that matter, how do we know when we’re in a downregulated state?

Well, here’s the catch. Downregulating the stress response is an acquired capacity. It’s like a muscle: you have to build it over time in order for it to be strong.

Although infants are born with the capacity for stress response (fussing, crying, etc.), their parasympathetic pathways, which help downregulate the SNS stress response, are not online at birth. This means babies can go up, but they can’t come down on their own. (They will go into a “freeze” state if ignored long enough this looks calm, but it really isn’t.) The baby’s nervous system develops the ability to calm down through thousands and thousands of supportive, soothing interactions with caregivers. At first, the caregiver is essentially functioning as the child’s parasympathetic nervous system. The development of this “braking system” continues throughout childhood, through continued positive interactions that meet the child’s needs.

There are many situations in which a child may not receive enough soothing in order to learn to downregulate sufficiently. These situations are not always the fault of the parents. Perhaps the child’s mother had a lot of her own unmanaged anxiety, was depressed, and/or experienced posttraumatic stress. Or maybe the family lived in poverty, with constant stressors impacting everyone’s sense of safety. Perhaps someone in the family passed away or suffered a major illness, rendering them unavailable for care. Maybe the child grew up in wartime or, unbeknownst to their parents, was frequently bullied at school.

Great things happen when we are parasympathetically dominant. Our breath is full, slow, and deep. The digestive system works well. The body can focus on repair, including reduction of inflammation, tissue repair, and hormone production. Subjectively, people feel fully present and alive. Many report feeling a pleasant softness and warmth, perhaps even throughout their bodies.

It’s important to point out that disconnecting from stress is not the same as resolving (downregulating) it. Alcohol and drugs, eating disorders, exercise or sexual compulsion, or even “zoning out” on the internet may make the chronically stuck upregulation of the SNS seem to go away for a time. However, as the people I work with in the therapy room could tell you, it’s not the same as sinking into a lovely, full-body sense of calm and relaxation.

Great things happen when we are parasympathetically dominant. Our breath is full, slow, and deep. The digestive system works well. The body can focus on repair, including reduction of inflammation, tissue repair, and hormone production. Subjectively, people feel fully present and alive. Many report feeling a pleasant softness and warmth, perhaps even throughout their bodies. When the SNS is on “standby” and the PNS is more active, people have a “buffer” for stress. They have energy to get through their day, but they can stay calm and present in challenging situations.

One of my first tasks in therapy is to assess and support the person’s ability to downregulate their stress responses. After they are provoked by something, how quickly and smoothly does their system deactivate? Are they still bothered by a small aversive event hours or days afterward?

Here’s a vital point often overlooked by therapists who haven’t had sufficient training in this area: In therapy, it is essential to make sure the person has the ability to downregulate the stress response before going into highly stressful material. In other words, you should never go into material that’s overwhelming, because overwhelming inherently means it’s bigger than your capacity to deal with it. So instead of the issue resolving, more symptoms arise. The way around this is to first support the capacity for downregulation. Then, only after this “braking system” is on board, take the difficult material a small bit at a time.

If someone doesn’t have a strong enough ability to come out of the stress response, how can they develop it?

  • Therapy: Working with downregulation of the stress response can be tricky, as it involves the deepest survival energies of the body. It is advisable to work with a therapist who has extensive training in this area. Remember, SNS downregulation was originally designed to come online under the guidance of another person (usually a parent) whose nervous system is well-developed.
  • Relaxation: Some people benefit from seeking activities or situations that cause the relaxation response and then deliberately spending time “feeling into” the resulting good sensations in their body. However, in relaxation states, some people experience a rebound in tension, stress, or anxiety. This is called “relaxation-induced anxiety” (RIA) or, in severe cases, “relaxation-induced panic.” In my experience, people with RIA are well served by working with a trained practitioner.
  • Physical exercise: Exercise is often helpful, as it tends to burn off excess SNS charge and encourage the production of endorphins. Exercise promotes good mood, self-esteem, and a sense of accomplishment.
  • Meditation: There are many forms of meditation, some of which specifically aim to produce downregulated states. However, in my experience, meditation can be unhelpful for some people who have a lot of traumatic response stored in their nervous systems. In these cases, their nervous systems simply won’t cooperate, and those around them may not have the awareness or tools to work with this issue.
  • Resonance: Simply put, resonance is the feeling you get from being around another person or other living being. I usually explain it by asking people to think of how they feel when they place their open palm onto the rib cage of a calm, happy dog. That feeling of warmth, relaxation, and well-being is a downregulatory feeling obtained via resonance with the dog’s nervous system. Of course, when others around us are tense, our bodies tend to pick up on that and become tense too. Thus, being around stressed, anxious, or angry people is usually the opposite of what’s needed to develop SNS downregulation.

In summary, the ability to go within and really settle oneself is developed during infancy and childhood. This capacity to downregulate stress states is important in maintaining health, relationships, and happiness. Those whose life circumstances didn’t permit development of this capacity during childhood can still develop it through awareness and work with a skilled professional.


This Is What Happens To Your Body When You Exercise

Whether you do it to lose weight, to reach a fitness goal or -- dare we say it? -- just for fun, exercise changes you.

There's the red face and the sweating, the pounding heart and pumping lungs, the boost to your alertness and mood, the previously nonexistent urges to talk about nothing but splits and laps and PBs.

But while we all know that staying physically active is essential to a long, healthy, productive life, we don't often understand exactly what's happening behind the scenes.

We asked the experts to take us through -- from head to toe -- what happens in the body when we exercise. Neuroscientist Judy Cameron, Ph.D., professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Tommy Boone, Ph.D., a board certified exercise physiologist, and Edward Laskowski, M.D., co-director of the Mayo Clinic Sports Medicine Center spill the beans on what gets and keeps you moving.

Muscles
The body calls on glucose, sugar the body has stored away from the foods we eat in the form of glycogen, for the energy required to contract muscles and spur movement.

It also uses adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, but the body only has small stores of both glucose and ATP. After quickly using up these supplies, the body requires extra oxygen to create more ATP. More blood is pumped to the exercising muscles to deliver that additional O. Without enough oxygen, lactic acid will form instead. Lactic acid is typically flushed from the body within 30 to 60 minutes after finishing up a workout.

Tiny tears form in the muscles that help them grow bigger and stronger as they heal. Soreness only means there are changes occurring in those muscles, says Boone, and typically lasts a couple of days.

Lungs
Your body may need up to 15 times more oxygen when you exercise, so you start to breathe faster and heavier. Your breathing rate will increase until the muscles surrounding the lungs just can't move any faster. This maximum capacity of oxygen use is called VO max. The higher the VO max, the more fit a person is.

Diaphragm
Like any muscle, the diaphragm can grow tired with all that heavy breathing. Some argue that as the diaphragm fatigues, it can spasm, causing a dreaded side stitch. (Others argue a side stitch is due to spasms of the ligaments around the diaphragm instead, while others believe the spasms to originate in the nerves that run from the upper back to the abdomen and are caused by poor posture!) Deep breathing and stretching can alleviate the discomfort in the middle of a workout, and preemptive strengthening in the gym can ward off future issues.

Heart
When you exercise, heart rate increases to circulate more oxygen (via the blood) at a quicker pace. The more you exercise, the more efficient the heart becomes at this process, so you can work out harder and longer. Eventually, this lowers resting heart rate in fit people.

Exercise also stimulates the growth of new blood vessels, causing blood pressure to decrease in fit people.

Stomach & Intestines
Because the body is pumping more blood to the muscles, it takes some away from the systems and functions that aren't top priority at the moment, like digestion. That can result in tummy troubles. Movement, absorption and secretion in the stomach and intestines can all be affected.

Brain
Increased blood flow also benefits the brain. Immediately, the brain cells will start functioning at a higher level, says Cameron, making you feel more alert and awake during exercise and more focused afterward.

When you work out regularly, the brain gets used to this frequent surge of blood and adapts by turning certain genes on or off. Many of these changes boost brain cell function and protect from diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or even stroke, and ward off age-related decline, she says.

Exercise also triggers a surge of chemical messengers in the brain called neurotransmitters, which include endorphins, often cited as the cause of the mythical "runner's high."

The brain releases dopamine and glutamate, too, to get those arms and legs moving, as well as gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, a prohibitive neurotransmitter that actually slows things down, to keep you moving in a smooth and controlled manner.

You'll also likely feel better thanks to a bump in serotonin, a neurotransmitter well known for its role in mood and depression.

Hippocampus
This part of the brain is highly involved in learning and memory, and it's one of the only sections of the brain that can make new brain cells. Exercise facilitates this, thanks to the extra oxygen in the brain.

Even when you stop exercising, those new brain cells survive, whereas many other changes in the brain during exercise eventually return to their normal state should you become less active.

Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is responsible for body temperature, as well as salt and water balance, among other duties. As your body heats up, it tells the skin to produce sweat to keep you cool.

Pituitary Gland
This control center in the brain alerts the adrenal glands to pump out the hormones necessary for movement. It also releases growth hormones. As the body searches for more fuel to burn after using up your glycogen stores, it will turn to either muscle or fat, says Cameron. Human growth hormone acts as a security guard for muscle, she says, telling the body to burn fat for energy instead.

Kidneys
The rate at which the kidneys filter blood can change depending on your level of exertion. After intense exercise, the kidneys allow greater levels of protein to be filtered into the urine. They also trigger better water reabsorption, resulting in less urine, in what is likely an attempt to help keep you as hydrated as possible.

Adrenal Glands
A number of the so-called "stress" hormones released here are actually crucial to exercise. Cortisol, for example, helps the body mobilize its energy stores into fuel. And adrenaline helps the heart beat faster so it can more quickly deliver blood around the body.

Skin
As you pick up the pace, the body, like any engine, produces heat -- and needs to cool off. The blood vessels in the skin dilate, increasing blood flow to the skin. The heat then dissipates through the skin into the air.

Eccrine Glands
At the hypothalamus's signal, one of two types of sweat glands, the eccrine glands, get to work. These sweat glands produce odorless perspiration, a mixture of water, salt and small amounts of other electrolytes, directly onto the skin's surface. When this sweat evaporates into the air, your body temp drops.

Apocrine Glands
This second type of sweat gland is found predominantly in hair-covered areas, like the scalp, armpits and groin. These sweat glands produce a fattier sweat, typically in response to emotional stress, that can result in odor when bacteria on the skin begin to break it down, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Face
The capillaries close to the skin's surface in the face dilate as well, as they strain to release heat. For some exercisers, this may result in a particularly red face after a workout.

Joints
Exercising puts extra weight on the joints, sometimes up to five or six times more than your bodyweight, says Laskowski.
Ankles, knees, hips, elbows and shoulders all have very different functions, but operate in similar ways. Each joint is lined with cushioning tissue at the ends of the bones called cartilage, as well as soft tissue and lubricating fluid, to help promote smooth and easy motion. Ligaments and tendons provide stability.

Over time, the cushioning around the joints can begin to wear away or degenerate, as happens in people with osteoarthritis, the most common type of arthritis.

Illustrations from Getty and by Jan Diehm for the Huffington Post.

This story appears in Issue 71 of our weekly iPad magazine, Huffington, available Friday, Oct. 18 in the iTunes App store.


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